Solving slow or stuttery firewire transfers on Windows 7

Just a tip for any googlers experiencing trouble with Windows 7 and slow firewire transfer speeds: setting the firewire drivers to their ‘legacy’ versions solved the problem for me.

Ever since setting up W7 I’ve had issues with large files transferring very slowly from my external firewire drive. Smaller files fly across, but anything over roughly 100mb seemed to get bogged down, and took way longer than it should have – a 450gb transfer last month was very frustrating. I forgot all about the problem until this evening, when I finally got around to setting up my backup system; SyncBack reported it would need 10hrs to transfer 200gb, and I could see it stalling on large files. I wondered whether there was a problem with the firewire drivers, and a bit of googling turned up this forum post, which seems to have fixed it.

It recommends changing the firewire drivers to the ‘Legacy’ versions. To do this, go to Device Manager and find your firewire device. In my case it was ‘1394 OHCI Compliant Host Controller’. Right-click it and hit ‘Update Driver Software’, then ‘Browse my computer for driver software’ and ‘Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer’. Select the version with (Legacy) at the end and click-through to install it.

For me, that was all it needed. I didn’t even have to restart. My backup is now going to take 4hrs, and it’s not pausing. In fact, lots of smaller files are increasing the estimated time, which is the complete opposite of its previous behaviour. Wish I’d discovered this last month…


I just bought Eucalyptus – the new e-reader application for the iPhone. At £6 it’s the most I’ve paid for an app1, but I’m hoping it’ll be worthwhile – it downloads its books directly from Project Gutenberg, the heroic volunteer-created database of thousands of public-domain texts. I already have all the Sherlock Holmes stories, Alice in Wonderland, the complete works of Byron2, On the Origin of Species, Grimm’s Fairy Tales, some early Bertrand Russell and even a Kurt Vonnegut short story3 to keep me going on the next train journey.

First impressions are good: the app works well. The text is easy to read, and appears almost instantly – the latter is particularly important, as I find delays on e-readers maddening. Flicking across the screen produces a fast, non-annoying and aesthetically pleasing page-turning animation (it even takes note of where you grab the ‘paper’, if you look carefully), while the text-size can be increased/decreased with a standard iPhone pinch/expand. It seems to save the last-read-page correctly, for multiple books, and if you were reading a book when the app closed, it goes straight back into it – there’s no need to mess around in menus. It also appears to save an image of the last read page, which it then displays while the application loads in the background, so startup is very snappy indeed. That’s pretty thoughtful. Downloading books is easy, with a built-in search as well as ipod-like browsing of the library, and the ‘processing’ of each file happens smoothly in the background. And it generates book covers around the iconic Penguin design, which is a nice touch.

On the down-side I downloaded a bunch of books and tried to read one while all the others were still processing, and the app crashed. This doesn’t mean much, as iPhone crashes can be related to all sorts of things, but I’m hoping it won’t be common. I’m also a little worried about battery life: the iPhone’s battery isn’t all that hot, and it’ll be interesting to see whether extended reading periods with the backlight on are a drain.

Of course, I haven’t actually tried reading anything on it yet. But I’m nevertheless quite chuffed with Eucalyptus. £6 seemed a lot at first, but I’ve been wanting an e-reader for years, and if the app Just Works like it seems to, I should finally get through plenty of I’ve-always-wanted-to-read-those classics. Excellent.

  1. I even balked at £3.50 for Myst (Myst! On a phone! Myst!) []
  2. finally in a decent format []
  3. thanks to @bengarvey []

Tuesday braindump

The New York Times has a surprisingly clear essay on why jokes are hard to remember:

Really great jokes, on the other hand, punch the lights out of do re mi. They work not by conforming to pattern recognition routines but by subverting them. “Jokes work because they deal with the unexpected, starting in one direction and then veering off into another,” said Robert Provine, a professor of psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and the author of “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation.” “What makes a joke successful are the same properties that can make it difficult to remember.”

People sometimes ask why I despise the tabloids so much. Here’s the reason: the front page of the Scottish Sunday Express this weekend exposed the shocking behaviour of the now-18-year-old survivors of the Dunblane massacre. It’s an utterly despicable piece of journalism, and Andrew lays into it appropriately:

They, or at least some of them, are drinking and fighting and having sex and then posting about it on social networking sites. That all sounds pretty reasonable to me, and it’s actually good to see that the shooting hasn’t totally wrecked their abilities to live normal lives. But the Express seems to think that that’s somehow Not On. No, these people are Dunblane Survivors, and that means they have to spend their every waking second Honouring The Memory Of Their Fallen Classmates. If they do anything else, like have fun or something, they’re Shaming Their Fallen Classmates.

The Sci-Fi channel is aiming to shake its ‘geeky image’, by changing its name to ‘SyFy’. Apparently they a) only have the 1980’s definition of ‘geek’ and b) have no concept of the people who watch their shows. Patronising cretins:

During its fourth-quarter earnings call, parent General Electric said Sci Fi racked up a double-digit increase in operating earnings despite the beginnings of the recession.

Nevertheless, there was always a sneaking suspicion that the name was holding the network back.

“The name Sci Fi has been associated with geeks and dysfunctional, antisocial boys in their basements with video games and stuff like that, as opposed to the general public and the female audience in particular,” said TV historian Tim Brooks, who helped launch Sci Fi Channel when he worked at USA Network.

qwghlm has a thoughtful piece on the reasons Twitter has taken off a few years after the rise of blogging, and why 140-character-brevity isn’t indicative of short attention spans:

Watchmen (and the other examples Johnson cites and expounds upon inEverything Bad Is Good For You) show that when consuming media, depth and brevity are not totally irreconcilable; you can concentrate on something difficult and concrete as well as enjoying content 140 characters at a time. And yet Twitter often gets demonised as a posterboy for the inanity of Web 2.0. Perhaps that’s no surprise, with its chief characteristics of brevity and ephemerality, the exact opposite of how we have consumed media in the past. Given that “value” of old media was often measured on its length (writers being paid by the word) or durability (all those books and records on your shelves), what’s produced in new media is often characterised as comparatively worthless, particularly by those who cut their teeth in the old media.

Finally, the iPhone 3.0 software was announced today. Lots of cool stuff: picture-messaging, cut-and-paste, control of bluetooth devices (great if you have one of those house-controlling boxes) and turn-by-turn navigation, meaning I can finally leave the sat-nav at home. It’s seems to be just me left disappointed by the lack of video recording (maybe I’ve missed something). After seeing the Nokia N95’s impressively high-quality recording of Thriller last week, I was really hoping it’d come to the iPhone. Hopefully they’re leaving that for a hardware announcement this summer…

The usual culprit

I chased down an odd problem this morning. The client was unable to download attachments from webmail: the download hung at ‘getfile.asp’, never translating this into a filename. My first thought was Norton Internet Security – if it’s there, it’s causing problems – but disabling it made no difference. So I played with IE’s security settings, as well as other browsers. Firefox sent me down the wrong path by – unrelatedly – having issues downloading files with spaces in their name. Chrome worked fine, but didn’t render the page properly, so I couldn’t recommend a last ditch browser switch.

Next stop: IE’s add-ons. I disabled AOL toolbar: nothing. I disabled something with no description other than ‘Research’: nothing. I disabled Norton: success! I hate that program.

The “Norton Confidential” add-on was the problem. The moment I disabled it NIS squawked about incomplete protection, so I went in to see which part had broken. Apparently it was the phishing protection module, so I disabled that (and turned off the monitoring so it wouldn’t shout at me), re-enabled the add-on, restarted IE and…no difference. The same was true no matter how much of NIS I turned off. So I ended up disabling the add-on permanently. Norton being Norton, it’ll undoubtedly launch a fascist takeover and re-enable everything at some point, but at least the disabling procedure is easy.

Vista has no repair-install option

For the last couple of days I’ve been working on a broken laptop, which gets halfway into Vista before blue-screening. Usually this is a hard drive problem, but that checked out fine. So I analysed the logs for odd drivers, and nothing was amiss there either. Then I googled the BSOD error codes, which suggested Windows was fundamentally broken – my best guess is it lost power while installing SP1. Fine.

This kind of thing isn’t a problem. I’ve had plenty of XP machines break in similar ways: the solution is to run a repair install from the XP disc. Repair installs are magic: they replace all the important system files, and usually fix everything outright. If not they almost always get you into the operating system, which is usually a good start.

Except, unbelievably, Vista doesn’t do repair installs. I’d forgotten this. Apparently you can emulate the process by installing an upgrade over the top, but only from within Vista itself. Essentially, if Vista doesn’t boot, you’re screwed.

System Restore is unfortunately not working either, so I’ve had no choice but to run ‘Restore to factory condition’ – a process which formats the drive in its first step. I’ve backed up all the data elsewhere, and I’ll have to restore it manually.  

This is completely stupid. Maybe there are good reasons for removing the repair install, but I can’t think of any, and it feels like an enormous step backwards. 

Windows 7 is getting some good press, along the lines of ‘Vista, but faster, sleeker, and without all the annoying crap’. I really hope so.

RpcSs killing processes in Windows 2000

For the last two days I’ve been struggling with a particularly irritating computer problem. I was called on Monday morning to say a Windows 2000 machine had a virus. An initial glance suggested spyware was killing processes: Explorer worked fine, but anything else – task manager included – was shut down immediately. This is pretty standard stuff for spyware, and I didn’t anticipate much trouble. Sadly, I was wrong.

I deleted an obvious ‘Windows Antispyware 2008’ to no effect, and virus / anti-spyware scans revealed nothing. I shut down all the non-essential services I could find, and even ran a quick scan for rootkits, but couldn’t find anything.

The problem was also there in Safe Mode, but not, I discovered by total chance, in Safe Mode with Networking. That was weird. The latter *should* just be the former + a network driver. This seemed consistent, then it happened once in SFw/N, and I started to think it might be hardware.

Admittedly it all felt a bit specific for that – you’d think hardware would kill everything, not just certain programs – but it could be to do with power draw. Plus, PSU problems have been known to have very weird symptoms. But a test PSU made no difference, the RAM checked out fine, and the (8-year-old) hard drive passed its fitness test. I thought I was onto something when I spotted the cpu fan slowing down and stopping in everything but SFw/N, but this was a red herring1.

I eventually tracked it down by comparing the running processes in Safe Mode and Safe Mode w/ Networking (by repeatedly opening task manager and writing down names before it got nuked). The former, bizarrely, had an extra svchost.exe running. svchost.exe is a generic holder for background programs, and I needed more details. This is easy enough in XP, but in Windows 2000 you need the tlist support tool. The process turned out to be RpcSs: Remote Procedure Call. This was a new one on me, but it essentially controls background communications between programs. Disabling it solved the problem, but created a thousand more.

Turns out, RpcSS is vital. And here’s where I got stuck. I just couldn’t find any elegant ways to fix it. RpcSS is too low-level and important, and can’t simply be reinstalled. Eventually I went with the old-school Magic Fix: the repair install. This just installs Windows over the top of itself, and while it’s often equivalent to using a sledgehammer to crack a wotsit, it generally solves the problem. Not this time. Windows died, and wouldn’t come back. In the end I was forced to reinstall from scratch, which is always the last resort2.

That’s really irritating. Usually, the hard part is diagnosing the problem. Once I know what’s going wrong, it’s just a matter of research and thinking it through. It’s rare that I can know what’s wrong but be unable to do anything about it. My best guess is the initial spyware somehow took out RpcSS. Windows 2000 is a bit old-and-busted now, and I’m hoping XP is better secured against such things.

I’m mainly blogging this for googlers facing similar issues. I couldn’t find any references to problems manifesting in Safe Mode but not Safe Mode with Networking. Very odd one.

  1. the motherboard was actually slowing down the processor so it could disable the fan and keep things quiet. I turned this off. []
  2. Also I’d forgotten Windows 2000 comes with IE5.0. Ugh. []

Setting up OpenVPN

I’ve spent the last couple of days setting up OpenVPN, the open-source VPN software, and I’m very impressed.

My parents’ office is increasingly mobile, with my sister working from home with the baby, and Mum and Dad needing to access data while out at clients’ offices. Up to now they’ve coped with a laptop, copying files back and forth as necessary, but this isn’t great for backups or security. As most businesses have wireless broadband internet these days, a Virtual Private Network – connecting to the office network via the Internet – seemed like a good idea. The trouble was, VPNs scared me.

I’m not a total novice – I’ve had some experience setting up a proprietary Cisco system. I didn’t get into the real nitty-gritty of that setup, but I understood the basic concepts: the need for encryption and authentication etc.. However, I also knew that things get very complicated very quickly. Encryption alone is a nightmare. I know from experience that these things are easy to grasp at a basic level, and there’s always plenty of information at the technical level, but bridging the two is difficult. Without a structured training course you run the risk of missing something important, or – and this was my primary worry – configuring something that works, but that you don’t really understand.

So I tentatively started exploring the options. If I needed to buy a bunch of books, so be it. And I quickly came across Hamachi.

Hamachi is VPNs for doofuses, like me. You install a client onto each computer, and these then register with a central server. When you want to connect to another machine on this virtual network, the central server mediates a secure connection, then leaves them to it. I didn’t understand the ins-and-outs of the security features, but it’s recommended by the ever-paranoid security expert Steve Gibson, so I figured it must be pretty good. Icing on the cake: it’s free.

I installed it. It was indeed remarkably easy to set up – I had to configure a couple of port-forwardings to get it fast enough, but when it worked, it worked very well. Other machines were accessible by their Hamachi name, so I could treat them as if they were on my network. Totally seamless. Great! But, the service was occasionally down. And if the central server isn’t working, there’s nothing you can do. Plus I had intermittent connectivity to certain computers – Hamachi would sometimes only establish a proxied connection, so data would have to flow through the Hamachi central server rather than directly (and you’re only allowed a certain bandwidth before they kick you off – unless you pay a subscription). If this were continuous I could have fixed it, but it only happened occasionally, and that’s just annoying. I also had problems with kicking machines off the network, as well as annoying bugs in the client generating demands to set a ‘master password’ every restart. So I started looking elsewhere.

And that’s when I first found mention of OpenVPN (again from Mr Gibson). It seemed to do exactly what I was after, but without the external infrastructure – the software handles the connection at both ends, so there’s no need for central servers. It’s also open-source, free and highly recommended. But this obviously comes at the price of extra complexity, and it would clearly be far from the easy ride of the Hamachi setup. Nevertheless, this seemed to be the best option, so yesterday morning I took a deep breath and dived in.

I needed an overview, and their home page links to OpenVPN and the SSL VPN Revolution – a white-paper on the concept of OpenVPN. Sounds terrible, right? Official documentation is usually extremely detailed and extremely useless for the beginner – I usually have to search for clarifying blog posts or forum questions, and piece it together from a thousand different sources. Not this time.

That document explains everything, and explains it clearly. Even amusingly (“There are many ways to exchange keys, some elegant and some barbaric”). From the basic problems a VPN needs to solve, to the various different attempts to solve said problems (and why some of them suck *cough* IPSec *cough*), to the most advanced and battle-hardened encryption methods and authentication standards, it covers everything. I was amazed.

I was particularly fascinated by public/private key encryption. I thought I understood it. Turned out, not so much. I’d love to be a mathematician in that field, as it’s very cool. Here’s how the aforementioned document describes it:

Certificates use Public Key Cryptography, meaning a host generates a public and private key pair that are mathematically related to one another. Any data encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted with the private key, and vice versa. Each end system has its own public/private key pair. The public key is given out to the world to encrypt traffic bound for the system, and the private key is kept secret to decrypt this traffic. The private key can also be used to prove that data was actually sent by a specific entity, which is called non-repudiation. If I encrypt something with my private key you can confirm it is really me by decrypting it with my public key.

As I said, I’ve been introduced to these concepts before, but the above was like a light bulb flicking on. I can’t recommend the white-paper enough as an all-round introduction to VPNs. I’ll probably need to read it again within a week, then refresh it occasionally, to keep the not-often-used concepts in my head, but that should be do-able.

Armed with this knowledge, I set about installing OpenVPN. I pretty much followed the HOWTO on the website. I set up the GUI, generated the various certificates, forwarded one UDP port at the server end, configured the text files and copied the right files to the right places. It took maybe 40 minutes to get everything ready, so i clicked ‘connect’. Didn’t work. Obviously – nothing does first time. I quick glance at the logs and…I hadn’t put a file path in quotation marks. This fixed, I hit connect again and…it connected.

I was logged in to my parents’ network over an uber-secure connection, and could ping the server. Just like that. A config line, a static route and an XP registry tweak later, I could ping any machine on their network. Another generated key and I had an extra authentication layer. A tweak to the certificates and the initial connection startup was passworded, just so anyone messing about with the laptop can’t play havoc by accident. No hassle, no stupid bugs, no stress. That’s pretty rare. So the technical side was set up exactly how I wanted it, which was lovely, but I needed more. It needed to be used by non-geeks, so required prettification.

OpenVPN GUI let me create a desktop shortcut, and via registry tweaks I turned on the silent connection options, which hide the ugly console windows and encryption info. There’s also the option to run a batch file on connect/disconnect – I set these to map/delete network drives. Sorted.

So on their laptop my parents can click a shortcut, enter a password, and a few seconds later they have an E: containing all of their documents, as if they were at home. On any wifi connection. This is exactly what I wanted, and it’s brilliant that it worked so well, but more important is that I understand what’s happening this time. It’s not magical Hamachi superpowers, it’s blowfish encryption and certificate-based authentication over an SSL connection. And writing that didn’t scare me at all.

This somehow got very long. But in conclusion: I haven’t tested OpenVPN extensively yet, but initial impressions are great. So far it’s been easy to understand, rock-solid stable and everything I could ask for. And the white-paper = as good. Recommended.

General notes:

The only worry I had was that Windows File Sharing might need to know the names of individual computers, which wouldn’t work over the VPN1. I thought I might have to set up a WINS or samba server to control computer names, and a bit of googling suggested there are no WINS servers for XP, and installing samba would always require linux – a whole other skillset. But I was wrong – Windows File Sharing is happy to work via IP, so I just used that.

Today I set it up on my sister’s Vista laptop. This presented its own challenges that I shan’t bore you with. I will just say that a) the promised client installers will be a great help – deploying the current setup to many computers would require jumping through a few hoops atm – and b) transferring executable files over the Internet is increasingly nightmareish: the combination of Gmail, Live Messenger and Vista paranoia drove me doolally. If you want to set up a machine, it’s easiest to drive over with a usb stick.

FYI, the current state of remote control software for Vista is appalling. Vista Home doesn’t support Remote Desktop; TightVNC doesn’t support Vista; UltraVNC does, but its site and setup procedure are currently such a mess that talking a novice through it on the phone would be formidable. But the built-in Remote Assistance, of all things, saved the day. XP’s version was a bit rubbish, but Vista’s implementation actually understands NAT and routers, and Just Worked. I was actually pretty impressed, as it can even handle UAC prompts. Worth a look.

  1. I set up a ‘routing’ network rather than a ‘bridging’ network. This means only IP-based protocols can flow between the two, and netbios is certainly not IP-compatible. Bridging makes it all look like one big network, but is more complex and unwieldy []

Lightroom 2.0 beta

Abode released a beta of Lightroom 2.0 this morning, which was quite the surprise. The feature list is impressive, but most interesting are:

  • Much better Photoshop integration. Images can now be sent directly into CS3 without requiring an export. It can also send a group of pictures straight through to be merged into a panorama or HDR image. Now they’ve implemented this feature I really don’t see the need for Bridge, Photoshop’s built-in image browser.
  • Localised masking. This is the big, attention-grabbing one – Lightroom can now edit specific areas of images. It’s nicely implemented, although since it links so well into Photoshop I might just use that instead. Well, I say that. In practice it might be quicker to do lots in Lightroom – we’ll see.
  • Smart collections. These are a bit like iTunes’ Smart Playlists. You can configure a bunch of rules, each with individual AND/OR inclusion settings, that give you a very nice way of focussing on specific images. So you can have a dynamically created set of recently-edited images, or anything with the keyword ‘monkeys’ taken last May, with a wide-angle lens. Etc..
  • Dual-monitor support. I’ve got two monitors, so I can have the smaller one displaying an overview of an image as I change particular elements. Or it can show the grid of photos while I edit on the main monitor. My smaller monitor’s colours are a bit dodgy, but it’s still useful as a rough guide.

There’s a fair bit more: export sharpening, better filters, a loupe in the details panel, and the interface has been overhauled and some of the existing features tweaked. A full guide is here.

Scott Kelby etc. have some introductory videos up, and their FAQ has some interesting details. They reckon the full version will be released June-ish, and there won’t be any beta updates between now and then. No word on pricing yet.

I’ve been playing around with it today and they’ve certainly been listening to the feedback. Lots of things work just that bit better, but it’s the Photoshop links that are the most useful for me. There are a couple of bugs, as is to be expected with betas, but nothing show-stopping yet. The program was pretty good already, but v2 adds enough that I can’t see me not buying the upgrade.

Because I own version 1.3 I can invite people to be on the beta program for six months – otherwise you’re limited to a 30-day trial – so let me know if you’d like an invite.

New CPU and motherboard up and running

My computer had never worked properly since I put in together in late 2005. I got random static bursts, and most USB devices would crash the system if left plugged in. I replaced the motherboard in desperation six months later, but it didn’t help much – the same problems came back. Research suggested the CPU and motherboard (both of them!) conflicted in some bizarre way, but no solutions were forthcoming, and I eventually gave up removing this or that piece of hardware every few weeks to see whether it made a difference. I didn’t have the money to replace both, so I lived with it. This happens sometimes with technology – it just never works right, and you end up having to buy something new. I got used to working around the problems for a couple of years, but a confluence of problems last month finally did me in. Before February it would have been a luxury, but it crossed into the sensible-decision bracket, so I didn’t have to feel guilty. I was going to need more RAM and a new hard drive anyway, so I finally gave in and ordered a totally new system, this time based around Intel rather than AMD.

New motherboard, with trusty enormous ninja heatsinkI’d decided early on that my priority would be processing and editing photos. I’m not bothered about playing games – I’d like to be, but nothing other than guitar hero has grabbed my attention for ages now – so I concentrated on RAM and CPU power at the expense of graphics. My friend Ben helped me choose the most appropriate equipment, and we ended up with a Q6600 quad-core processor with 4gb of RAM, plus a larger HD. It all arrived yesterday morning and I put it together in the afternoon.

The hardware setup took a few hours, after which it worked first time, which is a rarity! I then spent as long trying to talk the XP install into understanding the SATA drivers, and my twitter followers will know how frustrating that became – sorry! After that, though, everything was smooth as Captain Jack. XP is now all installed and I’m nearly done getting it all configured.

Lightroom and Photoshop are mind-bogglingly faster. Adobe products are one of the few that can take full advantage of four processors, and the extra RAM1 means much less hard-drive thrashing. I can switch between the two programs without having to shut down everything else, and this morning I was happily editing in both programs with Firefox and iTunes running in the background. This is exactly what I wanted – editing photos should be much less frustrating now, and for the next few years of my uni course.

A couple of weird little problems have solved themselves, too. I was having issues with a) my mouse double-clicking when it should be single-clicking, and b) my router dropping packets so random bits of websites would fail. Both have Just Gone Away.

I’ve also seen a significant speed boost in Google Docs, of all things – I guess it relies heavily on local javascript processing.

I tried not to get too wound up over the old problems – there are worse things in life than the odd crash, or having to remember to unplug a card reader – but *tempts fate* it’s really very nice to have a stable system. Totally worth it.

  1. only 3.5gb is accessible as I couldn’t stretch to a 64-bit OS []

Photoshop Trials

I’ve a digital photography module this term – YAY – and it’s going to involve some fairly intensive training in Photoshop CS2. I know my way around photo editing programs generally, but I’m sure there are plenty of gaps and I’m looking forward to having a professional around to show me what I’m doing wrong. The university has suites of Macs and high-end printers, but as they’re two hours away I think it’s sensible to get hold of Photoshop at home.

The student version of CS3 is £140, and while waiting to afford that I figured I’d download the 30-day trial. I picked up an enormous tutorial book from the library so I could have a play around, and promptly discovered that I already installed the trial last year. My 30 days are up, so I can’t get in.

I know I can get around this by reinstalling Windows; there must therefore be something somewhere I can delete to reset the 30 days. Obviously Adobe make this difficult so people can’t use the program indefinitely, which is fair enough. I could use a keygen and (illegally) unlock the trial to the full version but I have too much respect for my computer to start messing around with warez stuff. And I don’t want to feel like I’m ripping anybody off. 30 days is more than reasonable…I just need them again 🙂

Not a big worry, in the grand scheme of things. Little frustrating, though. I’ll try to install it on my parents’ laptop instead. I can only steal that a couple of times a week, but it’s more powerful than my home computer anyway…